Norwich Street Photographs

Previous street: Colman Rd

Constitution Hill:
        From Magdalen Rd / St Clement's Hill towards Spixworth, North Walsham
Wall Rd

      East side
Constitution Hill 68 [6669] 1991-04-29
Constitution Hill 82 Chaumiere de L'Etoile [6661] 1991-04-17

Cooper Lane:
        From Sandy Lane
Cooper Lane estate site view to Lakenham [B515] 1933-04-08
View across Sandy Lane and the railway towards Old Lakenham church.
Cooper Lane The Alders [6384] 1986-06-12

Coslany St:
        From Westwick St to Oak St / Colegate

      East side
Coslany St Bullard's fermentation hall [5342] 1973-01-05
Corner of Westwick St.
Coslany St Bullard's fermentation hall N [7608] 1998-12-13
North facade.
Coslany St Bullard's brewery frontage [5344] 1973-01-05
Coslany St Bullard's Anchor Brewery Stores [6297] 1984-04-28
Former Anchor Brewery Stores PH.
Coslany St Bullard's counting house [5343] 1973-01-05
And Directors' office from St Miles' bridge.
Coslany St Bullard's former brewery offices [7754] 2000-05-14
St Miles' bridge, right.
Coslany St Bullard's north side lettering [7607] 1998-12-13
Overlooking the river.
Coslany St Bullard's sculpted anchor panel [7606] 1998-12-13
Formerly at the base of Bullard's brewery chimney.
Wensum St Miles' Bridge Coslany east side [0056] 1934-03-22
Wensum St Miles' Bridge Coslany east side [0057] 1934-03-22
Wensum St Miles' Bridge Coslany east side [5433] 1975-07-03
Of previous structures the earlier ones were of timber. Originally there were two bridges here, linking an island to the mainland. By 1521 (and perhaps for some time before) the island had become joined to the mainland as on this date a single bridge was built here of stone. The present structure was designed by James Frost, builder and architect, and was opened on 15th November 1804. It is of cast iron with a single span of approximately 30 feet and width between parapets 15 feet.
Wensum St Miles' Bridge Coslany west side [6296] 1984-04-27
Coslany St Barnard Bishop's iron foundry [B622] 1933-07-11
Barnard, Bishop and Barnard Norfolk Ironworks, 19c.
Coslany St 20 to 22 [3196] 1939-07-30
An unusual feature, at least in Norwich, used to be the iron kerbs that ran along either side of Coslany St. It was perhaps no coincidence that for many years about an acre of land adjoining the riverside on the east of this narrow street was occupied by Barnard's foundry. No doubt, therefore, this special kerb was laid to protect the edges of the pavements from the excessive wear and tear, which might otherwise have been caused by heavy iron-tyred horse-drawn vehicles entering and leaving the premises.
By the 1920s the houses in this street, like those of Elm Hill, had become very run-down, but unlike Elm Hill they had nobody to plead sufficiently strongly for their restoration. Adjoining the foundry were three houses that survived until after the war. Their being listed as grade III under the Town and Country Planning Act was insufficient to save them when the whole site was eventually cleared for a housing development. One was a three-storeyed mansion of red and blue bricks, the front supported by pilasters, and with a central doorway also of moulded brick. The other two were timber framed, possibly 17c, the first floor jettied and the attic floor lit by a series of five dormers.
Most of the houses on the opposite side had been cleared away by 1933. We may still judge their appearance, however, from a delightful watercolour by Mr Charles Hobbis which was reproduced a year later in the Snapdragon annual. The principal building depicted had once been the Waggon and Horses public house, known before 1844 as the Jolly Dyers, but originally a merchant's mansion. It was not until it was being dismantled that a beautiful ceiling of moulded oak, thought to date from about 1540, came to light. Plastered over so that only the principal mouldings showed, the ceiling was discovered too late to save the building. The beams of the ceiling, however, were carefully taken down to be re-used in a public house then being rebuilt at Brandon - the Flintknappers - where visitors may still admire this specimen of mediaeval craftsmanship.
Coslany St crosses the Wensum by the narrow St Miles' bridge (built 1804), now brick paved and open only to pedestrians. Here was the extensive Anchor Brewery of Bullards, now transformed into a new housing, shopping and office development with the old fermentation hall, counting house and taproom admirably adapted by Scrolapoint to their new roles.
Coslany St 24 [3195] 1939-07-30
Coslany St 30 [B139] 1931-00-00

        From Magdalen St to Barrack St / Whitefriars / St Crispin's Rd (formerly to Whitefriar's bridge)
Little Bull Close, Peacock St

      North / east side
Cowgate 31 [6482] 1987-08-21
Cowgate Wensum chapel [6483] 1987-08-21
Built 1842 as a Primitive Methodist Chapel. Purchased by the Christian Brethren 1947.
Cowgate 131 [2121] 1938-03-06
The undercroft is a fragment of the Whitefriars' monastery.
This section of Cowgate south of Barrack St is now part of Whitefriars.
Cowgate 135 to 137 [2120] 1938-03-06
Cowgate Factory Yard view north [1653] 1937-05-29
Cowgate 135 to 137 rear from Factory Yard [1652] 1937-05-29
Cowgate 135 to 141 [0931] 1936-05-06
        South / west side
Cowgate 8 [0912] 1936-05-01
Cowgate 106 Fastolff's House [0620] 1935-08-06
The road north from Whitefriar's Bridge was formerly called Cowgate. A comparatively narrow thoroughfare, it bent slightly northeastwards before reaching St James' church, and thence by a sharp bend to the west entering Magdalen St. On the right, before reaching Barrack St, was a hotch-potch of houses and industrial buildings, while the left-hand side was flanked largely by early 19c red-brick three-storeyed tenements.
One notable exception, however, was the timber-framed cement-rendered Fastolff House. This faced St James' churchyard, forming Nos 104-108 Cowgate, but was condemned in 1936 by its inclusion in a local clearance area. It had a very striking appearance with its two prominent gables, and with the front overhang supported by two posts. The northern gable was carried up an extra storey and had small dormers on either side for lighting the attic. Local antiquaries had no doubt that it was of 15c origin and could be identified as Sir John Fastolff's city house (Sir John owned Caister Castle and died in 1450). The historian Francis Blomefield had this to say:
"There is an ancient house in this parish (St Paul's) opposite to St James' church, in which Mr Rich. Carr now dwells, which was called anciently Fastolff's Place, and was built by the great Sir John Fastolff of Caister-by-Yarmouth, Knt., and is called in some old evidences, his place or city-house in Pokethorpe; to which manor it pays a rent of 1s.5d. a year. His great hall is now a baking office; the bow-window is adorned with the images of St Margaret; St John, Baptist in his garment of camel's hair; the Virgin Mary; St Blase holding a wool comb, and St Catherine. In a large north window are ten effigies of great warriors and chiefs, as David, Sampson, Hercules &c., holding bows, swords and halberds &c., ornaments suitable to the taste of so great a warrior as Sir John was."
During the 19c it became the Ship inn, the name being perpetuated in the adjoining yard.
Now the whole scene has changed. Cowgate from the bridge to the giant roundabout linking Barrack St with St Crispin's Rd (Inner Link road) has been straightened and widened to more than double its former width and has been renamed Whitefriars.
Cowgate 106 Fastolff's House [1434] 1936-09-20
Cowgate 106 Fastolff's House from Ship Yard [2973] 1939-05-13

Cow Hill:
        From St Giles' St to Pottergate / Ten Bell Lane
Willow Lane
Cow Hill 1 [1681] 1937-06-05
Cow Hill 2 to 3 [1343] 1936-08-29
Cow Hill 3 Georgian doorway [0488] 1935-04-21
Cow Hill 4 [1680] 1937-06-05
Cow Hill 8 to 11 [1342] 1936-08-29
Cow Hill Cow Yard west side [1367] 1936-09-03
Cow Hill runs from Pottergate to St Giles' St. The carriageways of this and neighbouring Willow Lane retained their cobbled paving until the end of 1925, when they were covered with a thick layer of asphalt. Holkham House, a short distance along to the right, is mentioned in his History of St Giles' Parish by Sir Peter Eade, who noted that it was then (1886) divided into three tenements occupied respectively by Mr Read, Mr Stevens and Mr Brock. He also stated that it was "previously occupied and built by Mr Patience, who called his residence 'Holkham House' from its resemblance in miniature to Holkham Hall".
However, writing in Norfolk Archaeology Vol.32 about the architect Robert Brettingham (1696-1786), Mr A.Paget Baggs says "In about 1740 he owned the property now known as Holkham House, Cow Hill, and it is probable that the building was designed by him or his brother Matthew". He also mentions John Thomas Patience, describing him as an "architect and City Surveyor. Early in his career he was living at Holkham House, Cow Hill, but later he moved to 3, York Place". One of the outstanding features of Holkham House is a very fine ceiling of moulded plaster.
Cow Yard, like the hill itself, obtained its name from the sign of the Red Cow, a public house standing in 1760 on the site now occupied by the parish hall. At the back of the yard, behind Holkham House, stood the little cottage illustrated, with its partly leaded casements and a commodious dormer giving light and additional space to the attic. The garden (not a common feature of old Norwich yards) gave it an almost rural appearance, but all was cleared away under an improvement scheme.
Cow Hill house spanning Cow Yard [1344] 1936-08-29
Cow Hill 15 to 17 Holkham House [0384] 1935-03-03
Early 19c. The residence of John Thomas Patience architect and City Surveyor, designer of Friends Meeting House, Lady Lane Methodist Chapel and the Roman Catholic chapel Willow Lane.
Cow Hill 15 to 17 north wing south side [6539] 1989-03-25
Cow Hill 18 [1371] 1936-09-03
Cow Hill 18 rear from Pottergate 98 [6481] 1987-08-21
Cow Hill view north COLOUR [2959] 1939-04-12

The Crescent:
        Off Chapel Field Rd
Crescent The NW side [5203] 1968-06-04

Cross Lane:
        From St George's St to Calvert St

      North side
Cross Lane 1 from St George St [3034] 1939-05-29
Cross Lane 1 to 5 Rifleman PH [3210] 1939-08-07
The Rifleman PH is believed to be the house which Crome the artist visited nightly.
        South side
Cross Lane 6 to 14 [1060] 1936-06-27
On the right. Calvert St 2 to 22 on the left.

Crown Rd:
        From Agricultural Hall Plain to Cattlemarket St
Crown Rd Royal Mail sorting office [5898] 1978-04-25
Crown Rd 34 [6621] 1990-07-12
Crown Rd 34 Georgian doorway [4712] 1962-09-08
Crown Rd 39 Market Tavern [6488] 1987-09-26

Daniels Rd:
        From Newmarket Rd / Mile End Rd to Ipswich Rd / Lakenham Rd
Daniels Rd construction from Newmarket Rd [B601] 1933-06-28
Daniels Rd construction from Newmarket Rd [B637] 1933-07-22
Daniels Rd at Newmarket Rd [B770] 1933-09-10
Daniels Rd at Newmarket Rd [B769] 1933-09-10
Mile End Rd beyond.

Davey Place:
        From Market Place to Castle Meadow
Castle St

      South side
Davey Place 1 to 7 [4610] 1961-06-10
Davey Place was built as a pedestrian thoroughfare in 1813. Alderman Jonathan Davey was responsible, causing some concern, initially, when he announced that he intended putting a hole in the King's Head. In fact this was the name of a public house which was demolished to give access from the Market Place.
        North side
Davey Place 10 Eagle and Pearl at Bonser's [0198] 1934-08-11
Norwich, like other old cities, once boasted of a wide variety of signs displayed over its shop fronts. Except for a few now in the Strangers' Hall museum, such as Dodson's Golden Teapot, Griffiths' Golden Plane, and the two described below, the majority have disappeared, even including the ubiquitous barber's pole. The public houses seem now to be alone in continuing the custom.
Here in Davey Place at least two were carrying out their original purpose into the 20c. One was the golden fleece, often referred to as "Skoyles' sheep". This was suspended outside the shop of Riches and Skoyles, where the Monsoon shop later opened. The traditional sign of the wool stapler, it here drew attention to a men's outfitters and hatters. The proprietor, Robert Skoyles, who had succeeded his father in the business, died in 1940 aged 84, but he had given up the shop some 35 years before to go into the wholesale clothing trade, with premises in Pottergate.
It is possible that the history of this particular sign went back further than that of Skoyles' shop. For in the 1780s some copper tradesmen's tokens (some circular, some oval) were issued bearing this symbol enclosed by the motto "Good Times will come". A representation of Norwich Castle was shown on the reverse side, with an inscription on the edge stating that it was issued by Richard Bacon of Cockey Lane (now London St).
Another old sign to last into the 20c was the Golden Eagle and Pearl, to be seen for many years above Bonsers, the grocer's shop at 10, Davey Place. This sign was originally adopted by Isaac Marsh, a silversmith, who founded his business in 1769 at a shop on the Walk where Lloyd's Bank later opened. Successive owners ware Dunham and Yallop and Etheridge and Ellis, during whose time the character of the firm changed to that of tea dealers. The present sign was carved in 1869 by John Culyer as a faithful copy of the original. About 1875 the firm was acquired by Bonsers, who later moved to Davey Place. Early in the 20c the proprietors were J.Utting in partnership with my great uncle William Plunkett, and they were succeeded by E.C.Sennitt, who had similar shops in St Stephen's and Goat Lane. On their giving up in 1938 Goose's bookshop moved here from the Haymarket and the old sign was handed over to the Norwich Castle museum.
Davey Place 10 to 14 [4654] 1961-10-08
Davey Place 18 Tyce's 19c iron shop front [4526] 1959-08-29
At No 18 Davey Place, alongside the steps to Castle Meadow, stood until 1960 a narrow building of cast-iron and glass, 100 feet long and two storeys high, one of the few examples then remaining of a type of building pioneered by the Crystal Palace in 1851. For many years it was occupied, with an adjoining warehouse, by Harry Tyce and Son, a firm described at the time of its closure in 1959 as the oldest ironmongery business in the city. Its founder, John Browne (Mayor in 1798), opened it in 1750 at premises in St Peter's St. In the mid-19c it was sold to Edward Orams (Sheriff in 1889), who was later joined in partnership by Harry Tyce. It was due to the retirement of Harry Tyce's son Mr C.G.Tyce that the business finally closed.
When it was announced that the freehold of the property had been sold and that the site would be redeveloped, various pleas were made for preserving the ironwork, the chairman of the Norwich Society saying that the building had "great architectural character and it would be a pity to lose it". The suggestion was made that it should be used as a pavilion, perhaps on the Royal Norfolk showground at New Costessey, but the idea was found to be impracticable and nothing further was done.

Dereham Rd:
        From Barn Rd / St Benedict's St / Grapes Hill towards East Dereham
Midland St, Heigham Rd, Belvoir St, Nelson St, Bowthorpe Rd, Turner Rd, Waterworks Rd, Guardian Rd, Sweet Briar Rd, Hellesdon Rd, Bowthorpe, Costessey

      North side
Dereham Rd 5 to 7 [2014] 1937-09-22
Site of the Regal cinema.
Dereham Rd Regal day after opening [2348] 1938-04-17
Regal cinema.
Dereham Rd Baptist church [6591] 1989-09-19
Built 1906, architect A.F.Scott.
Dereham Rd milestone by Woodlands Park [0609] 1935-08-05
Dereham Rd Gate House PH [2983] 1939-05-19
Dereham Rd Oval PH [2998] 1939-05-21
        South side
Dereham Rd 2 [1703] 1937-06-08
Dereham Rd 238a Earl of Leicester PH [7476] 1997-08-26
Dereham Rd 286 Artful Dodger PH [7477] 1997-08-26
Formerly the Lord Nelson PH.
Dereham Rd disused standpipe view west [7890] 2002-07-14
Once used for filling watering carts which laid the dust in dry weather. Cast by Barnes and Pye, Colegate, Norwich. [Another one visible in the photo of 20 St John Maddermarket.]
Dereham Rd disused standpipe view east [7786] 2000-11-24
Dereham Rd disused standpipe view east [7889] 2002-07-14

Drayton Rd:
        From Aylsham Rd to Sweet Briar Rd / Boundary Rd and towards Drayton
St Martin's Rd, Mile Cross Rd
Drayton Rd 7 to 9 [6960] 1993-02-16
19c Gothic cottages.
Drayton High Rd Boundary Rd Cross [1747] 1937-07-04
Hellesdon Cross II: stands on the present city boundary at Drayton Rd. Restored 1902. 5 feet of the octagonal shaft is original.

Duck Lane:
        From St Benedict's St to Pottergate (now part of Wellington Lane)
Duck Lane 2 to 4 [1115] 1936-07-13
Duck Lane 10 to 12 [1114] 1936-07-13
Duck Lane 18 [1113] 1936-07-13
Wellington Lane is so-called from the sign of a beer-house once trading there. The lower part of the lane, formerly known as Duck Lane, extends from Pottergate to St Benedict's Gate and was originally part of the Regia via sub muros or Way under the Walls, mentioned in records from the early part of the 14c.
Here was a varied collection of old cottages when I photographed its east side in 1936. One of these had two storeys and a crow-stepped gable; another had two gables immediately above its ground floor, giving additional accommodation in the roof space. None of these survived the terrible raids of the 27th and 29th April 1942, and since the war the site between here and Ten Bell Lane has been redeveloped with a pleasant housing complex.
Duck Lane arched recess [2280] 1938-04-10
Wellington Lane wall, known then as Duck Lane.
Duck Lane wall from inside city [0106] 1934-05-27
Wellington Lane wall, known then as Duck Lane.
Duck Lane wall from inside city view NW [3985] 1951-04-19
Wellington Lane wall, known then as Duck Lane.
Duck Lane wall from outside city view NE [3987] 1951-04-19
Wellington Lane wall, known then as Duck Lane.

Duke St:
        From St Andrew's St / St John Maddermarket / Charing Cross to St Mary's Plain / Pitt St / Muspole St (now to St Crispin's Rd)

      East side
Duke St 5 Electricity works floodlit [1634] 1937-05-13
Municipal offices until 1938. Electricity department.
Duke St Duke's Palace foundations view east [5375] 1974-07-09
Foundations of domestic wing, excavated in 1974.
Duke St Duke's Palace foundations view west [5376] 1974-07-09
Rebuilt from a smaller structure in 1602. Destroyed except for the domestic offices in 1711.
Duke St 7 Duke's Palace PH [1120] 1936-07-13
Duke St 7 Duke's Palace PH [5130] 1967-04-01
Now largely covered by the St Andrew's multi-storey car park and the new Telephone Exchange, across the Charing Cross end of Duke St and overlapping on to the adjoining sites, once stood the Duke of Norfolk's palace. It had been rebuilt in 1602 from a smaller structure, apparently making use of a certain amount of material robbed from St Benet's abbey, in the marshes near Horning. In 1672 it was again rebuilt or otherwise altered, only to be demolished in 1711 as a result of a quarrel three years earlier between the Duke and the Mayor, Thomas Havers. Fortunately the historian John Kirkpatrick had made drawings of it only the previous year. From these it appears to have had a large central courtyard, the main building standing to the north and having a wing on either side extending southward. Enclosing the court on the fourth side was a raised terrace pieced by a central arched gateway.
One wing, the domestic offices, was allowed to remain after all else had gone and this was later leased to the Court of Guardians for use as a workhouse. A drawing of this reproduced in the book A Great Gothic Fane (published in 1913) showed a building whose most remarkable feature was a double row of dormer windows (eight in each row) giving light to the roof space.
Many will remember the Duke's Palace inn, which stood midway between the old Public Library and the river. High up at the back a blocked window opening and the wall surrounding it had evidently originally formed part of the palace, but all was swept away when the inn was pulled down in 1968. All, that is, except for some foundations of the domestic wing, which were excavated and mapped in 1974 before being again covered by new development.
Duke St 7 octagonal outbuilding [5129] 1967-04-01
Wensum Duke's Palace Bridge view upstream [5318] 1972-06-30
The old Duke's Palace Bridge, until 1972 carried the street over the Wensum. No previous bridge had occupied the site, but by early in the 19c the need was felt for a more direct link between the north of the city and the market place. In September and October 1819, therefore, meetings presided over by the Mayor were held at the Guildhall to discuss the matter. There was a minor setback when a majority voted against the proposal, but at a further meeting at the end of November it was announced that £7,000 of the proposed £9,000 had been subscribed, raised by shares of £25 each, which left the way clear for promoting a Bill in Parliament. On 8th July 1820, the Bill had been passed by both Houses and on 28th August 1821, Alderman T.S.Day laid the foundation stone. The bridge, originally a toll bridge, was opened to traffic during the following year.
The new road thus formed, built across the site of the old palace of the Dukes of Norfolk, linked Charing Cross and St John Maddermarket with Pitt St and St Augustine's. The bridge, adorned on either aide with the city's coat of arms had a skew-span of approximately 50 feet.
In 1839 a Bill was promoted in Parliament to provide, among other things, for the freeing of this bridge and those at Carrow and Thorpe (Foundry bridge). Four years later the local inhabitants were still agitating for this to be done, and it was not until 1855 that the tolls were lifted; a celebratory dinner was held at the adjacent Duke's Palace inn to mark the event.
By the 1930s the bridge was beginning to show its age, and a weight limit of twelve tons was imposed. At this time, too, with the city's traffic becoming increasingly congested, plans were drawn up for a major road artery running from north to south through the centre of the city. This would have involved widening St Augustine's, Pitt St and Duke St, with a new realigned bridge linking up with Exchange St, the Market Place and St Stephen's. Although apparently promoted by City Engineer Horace Rowley in the 1945 City of Norwich Plan, this arterial road idea was eventually superseded by the "ring and loop" scheme based on the Inner Link road, devised to preserve as much as possible of the city's historic central area.
In May 1972, it was found necessary to reduce the weight limit on the 150-year-old bridge to three tons. A few months later Duke St was temporarily closed, the old bridge dismantled, and a new and wider one erected in its place. Supported by 15 concrete beams, each 65 feet in length, the new bridge is of utilitarian design.
The ironwork from one side of the old bridge, which had been listed as a structure of historic interest, was re-erected after 20 years in storage, above the entrance to the Castle Mall car park in Market Avenue.
Wensum Duke's Palace Bridge view downstream [0058] 1934-03-24
Wensum Duke's Palace Bridge view downstream [2761] 1938-08-30
Wensum Duke's Palace Bridge view downstream [2762] 1938-08-30
Wensum Duke's Palace Bridge view downstream [5901] 1978-04-25
Duke St Butler and Hacon's collapse [B453] 1932-10-00
Premises collapsed into river next to Duke's Palace bridge. Butler and Hacon were corn merchants.
Duke St 23 former Moon and Stars PH [5131] 1967-04-01
Duke St 25 to 31 [6555] 1989-06-23
Duke St 43 to 59 [6554] 1989-06-23
Duke St 67 air raid damage [3754] 1948-09-10
Timber frame revealed by air raid. See also 34 to 36 Muspole St.
Duke St 69 to 89 former Whip and Nag PH [5903] 1978-04-25
Formerly 31 to 33 Muspole St and 1 to 3 Pitt St. See Pitt St for earlier photos.
Duke St 69 to 89 courtyard NE corner [5895] 1978-04-19
Restored in 1978.
Duke St 69 to 89 courtyard SW corner [5894] 1978-04-19
Duke St 69 to 89 courtyard west side [5893] 1978-04-19
        West side
Duke St 4 Electricity works floodlit [1633] 1937-05-13
Municipal offices until 1938. Electricity department.
Coronation Duke St Electricity works [1569] 1937-05-09
1937 coronation decorations.
Duke St Higher Grade School carved lion L [4395] 1955-09-26
Further north on Duke St, what was built in 1888 by the Norwich School Board as a higher grade or municipal secondary school still stands at the corner of Colegate; it is now put to other educational uses. Here until 1958 two stone "lions couchant" guarded the entrances, each one perched high above the street on a brick and stone plinth. They were not carved especially for the school, however, but were considered to be of 17c origin and to have come from the Duke of Norfolk's palace on the other side of the river. In between times they had flanked the entrance to the Duke's Head inn, on the site of which the school was built.
In 1958, because the brick piers on which they were mounted were showing signs of decay, the lions were taken down to be cleaned and put into store awaiting transfer to some other appropriate location. I have been unable to discover whether they are still in store or have been found another home. I am tempted to think of the fate threatened to the family portraits in Gilbert and Sullivan's Ruddigore, that if they didn't behave themselves they would be given to the nation and "nobody would ever see them again".
Duke St Higher Grade School carved lion R [4389] 1955-09-24
Duke St Higher Grade School former [7726] 2000-02-02
Opened 25th October 1889, designed by Mr J.H.Brown, architect to the School Board, built by J.Youngs and son.
Duke St 34 Regency House [4388] 1955-09-24

Next street: Earlham Grove

Text and photographs copyright George Plunkett

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